Design, Fabrication, Measurement, and Packaging.


More courses related to optical areas are listed below.


 Fiber Optic Communications

Optical Networks

Fiber Optic Technology

Polymers for Optical and Microwave Applications


Course Description


Course Outline

Course Materials

Who Should Attend







March 7 and 8, 2016.

March 6 and 7, 2017

Cleveland, Ohio.


July 4 and 5, 2016.

July 3 and 4, 2017

Cleveland, Ohio.


September 19 and 20, 2016.

September 18 and 19, 2017

Cleveland, Ohio.




ON-SITE TRAINING: For more information, call at 216-849-2512.

Cost: $1,200.

Registration Contact: 216-849-2512

Course Description

Optoelectronic devices and systems, along with electronics technology, have become essential in both our industrial and social lives. Areas covered include all aspects of integrated optical circuit development, including materials, fabrication techniques, design consideration, component development, waveguide design and fabrication, and application requirements. Understanding of the terminology and concepts of optical waveguides and devices will be described. The fabrication of optical waveguides with a complete discussion of the fabrication techniques, materials, and state-of-the art results for both active and passive devices will be discussed. Included is an easy-to-follow sequence of steps for designing and fabricating optical devices including amplifier, splitter, tunable wavelength filter, star coupler, modulator, micro-electro-mechanical system switching, etc. The concept of operation, fabrication, evaluation, and performance of these devices will be covered in detail. The aim of this course is to present to the participants the valuable information necessary to understand comprehensively the design, fabrication techniques, measurements, packaging, and system applications of optoelectronic devices, in a concise and organized form so that participants can grasp the essence of this emerging technology. Our primary focus have been placed on reporting the accomplishments to date, and presenting the issues requiring future development in each of the major areas presented in this course.

This course is provided into eight parts:


1.     Overview of Lightwave.

2.     Waveguide Design in Integrated Optical Circuits.

3.     Materials and Microfabrication Techniques.

4.     Materials and Fabrication Process of Optical Waveguides.

5.     Glass-Waveguides on Integrated Optical Substrates.

6.     Fiber-to-Optical Waveguide Coupling Techniques.

7.     Characteristics and Measurement of Integrated Channel Waveguides.

8.     Integrated Optical Devices For Variety of Applications.




Hung D. Nguyen, Ph.D.

Dr. Nguyen is a senior engineer for the Space Communication Division of NASA Glenn Research Center at Cleveland, Ohio, where he is engaged in the development and commercialization of semiconductor integrated optoelectronics devices for high speed communication systems and fiber optic networks. He has been in the field of fiber optic networks and telecommunications for over 15 years. His areas of specialization include integrated optic devices,optic networks and telecommunications, data communications, optical and electronic packaging, and micro-lithography. He is a lead engineer and project manager in photonics and microlithography systems programs, and has been directly involved in all phases of development and implementation of integrated fiber optic systems. In addition, he is a senior consultant for numerous companies in the development and fabrication of optical device phototypes. He has lectured and written numerous technical papers on optical networks and telecommunications systems. Dr. Nguyen earned his Ph.D. in electrical engineering and applied physics from Case Western Reserve University. BACK

Who Should Attend

Practicing scientists, engineers, managers, marketing/sale personnel, or technicians who desire either an introduction or overview/review of optical circuit engineering , concerned with the selection and application of components, and with the design and evaluation of systems. BACK


    • Gain a broad understanding of almost all aspects of optoelectronic technology.
    • Be able to design and specify systems, to read the technical literature with a practical understanding, and to understand manufacturer's data sheets.
    • Understand the design, characteristics, and performances of a wide spectrum of integrated optical components.
    • Gain an in-depth understanding of the factors necessary for processing, design, and fabrication of integrated optoelectronic devices.
    • Develop a basis for further research and development.
    • BACK


Course Outline

Overview of lightwave

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Ray theory transmission

Refraction and reflection

Critical angle, numerical aperature, refractive index difference

Acceptance angle

Snell's law

Fresnel reflection

Reflection coefficient effect of TE and TM polarization

Brewster angle

Types of  polarization states

            - Linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations

Jones matrix representations for

            - Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization

Field representations of polarization

Which applications require polarization

Polarizing optical systems

- Linear and rotator polarizer

- Wave retarder : Quarter-wave and half-wave retarder.

Coherent state

            - Perfect and partial-perfect coherence.

            - Coherent time

- Coherent length

Interference states

What optical systems require coherent states

            - Irradiance of coherent and incoherent waves


            - Single and multiple slits


In class exercise


Waveguide Design in Integrated Optical Circuits.



Optical waveguide design

- Condition for light guided into waveguide film.

Types of planar waveguides

- Embedded thin-film structure

- Ridge structure

- Rib structure

- Bulged structure

- Strip-load structure

Slab (2-D) waveguide.

            - Step-index type.

            - Graded-index type.

Rectangular (3-D) waveguide

            - Buried type.

            - Ridge type.

            - Dielectric loading type.

Metal loading type.

Wave-vector diagram

Wave equations of dielectric waveguides

            - TE and TM modes.

Eigenvalue equation for solving effective index N.

Effective index value.

            -  Normalized frequency

            - Normalized guided index

Modes in the thin film and rectangular waveguides

Dispersion in waveguides

Approach and method of designing variety of waveguides

Condition of guided and radiation modes

Analysis of effective refractive indices

Derivation of the wave equations for waveguide

Power per unit guided width, reduce factors

In class exercise


Materials and Microfabrication Techniques in Optical Integrated Circuits.


Features of microfabrication process.

Substrate and metallization materials

Electrical insulation for metallic crossover or vertical layers

Pattern techniques.

- Photolithography : Resist coating, exposure, development, etching-away, and direct process.

- Electro-beam lithography : Types of electron-beam resists, electron-beam printing process, development, and direct process.


Process steps.

            - Substrate.

            - Wafer preparation.

            - Deposition of film layer

                        - Spin coating

                        - Beam evaporation.

            - Mask materials

            - Data for pattern

                        - Ion-beam method.

                        - Laser beam method.

                        - Electron beam method.

            - Mask films.

                        - Materials: Photoresist, Ti, Al, glass, etc.

                        - Evaporation, RF sputtering, and spin coating.

            - Development

            - Etching process.

                        - Dry etching: Plasma, reactive ion, and ion beam techniques.

                        - Wet etching.

Pattern transfer processing techniques

- Lift-off processing


Concerns regarding chemical etching.

            - Low rate of reproducibility.

            - Etching isotropic.

Factors controlling the etching rate


Materials and Fabrication Techniques of Optical Waveguides


Fabrication techniques of slab and channel waveguides.

            Materials and fabrication process.


Selection and fabrication process.

            Spin-dip-coating deposition

            Chemical vapor deposition

            Radio-frequency deposition

            Thermal vapor deposition


            Ion-exchanged process

            Epitaxial growth process

            Ion implanation


            Thermal diffusion


Structures and fabrication of 3-D waveguides.

Photolithography techniques in optical waveguide.

            - Buried type.

            - Ridge type.

            - Dielectric-film loaded type.

            - Metal-film type.

- Introduction to materials and fabrication techniques

- Waveguide patterning process


- LiNbO3/LiTaO3 waveguides

            -Thermal Ti-in-diffusion: crystal preparation and metal-film depsition.

                        - Ti-diffused waveguides and deposition of buffer coatings.

- Photon exchange waveguide.

- Epitaxial grown

- Liquid phase


- GaAs waveguides

- Epitaxial grown

- Reactive ion etching


- SiO2/Si waveguides.

            - SiO2 characteristic.

            - SiO2 buffer layer thickness.

            - Fabrication process and type of etchings.


- Polymer thin film waveguides

            - Fabrication methods and charateristics.

- Injection molding

- Wet chemical

- Projection printing

- Ultraviolet laser.

- Photobleach

- Reactive ion etching

            - Organic and polymer materials.

            - Polymer films in semiconductor process.

            - Types of etching effect.

            - Degree of planarization.

            - Multichip module interlayer dielectric applications.

                        - Wet etching process.

                        - Dry etching process.

            - Nonlinear optical polymer materials.

-  Electro-optic coefficient in polyimide.

                        - Electric poling field process.

In-class exercise


Glass-Waveguides on Integrated Optical Substrates (Part I)       


Basic device geometry

            - Substrate

            - Buffer layer

            - Channel guide core

            - Coating layer.

Glass waveguide configurations.

            - Buried type.

            - Ridged and loaded types

Glass deposition

            - Dopant material system

Deposition methods.

            - Thermal oxidation and nitridation

            - Chemical vapor deposition.

            - Sputtering method.

            - Plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

            - Flame hydrolysis deposition.

            - Sol-gel deposition


Glass-Waveguides on Integrated Optical Substrates (Part II)


Characteristics and optical properties of glass materials

            - Barium silicate glass.           

            - Ta2O5 , SiO2 – Ta2O5 , Nb2O5 , ZnO ,and GeO2 .

Fabrication techniques for the production of silica-based waveguides.

Propagation loss in silica-on silicon waveguides

            - Directly UV-written silica-on-silicon process

            - Ion-exchanged process.

            - Flame hydrolysis deposition process.

            - Reactive ion etching.

Type of waveguides

            - Er-doped glass film

            - K+ - ion exchanged

            - Ag+ - Na+ Ion exchanged

            - Ge02 –doped silica

            - TiO2 doped silica

            - Sol-gel silica


Fiber-to-Optical waveguide coupling techniques


Methods of coupling fiber into waveguides.


Beam waveguide coupler

Prism coupling method

Tapered single-mode fiber

Micro-lens fiber

Integrated spot size converter

Up-tapered ridge waveguide


Characteristics and Measurement of integrated channel waveguides.


Measurement of transmission losses in channel waveguides.

            Modal field.

            Spectral transmittance.

            Transmission losses.

            Prism-sliding and end-fire methods.

            Scattering-detection method.

            End-fire coupling to waveguides of different lengths.

Optical source for loss measurements.

Optical component loss measurement.

Scattering loss measurement.

Transmission loss for optical waveguide

            Cut-back technique

            Prism technique.

Wavelength measurement.

Spectral measurement.

Return loss measurement.

            Back reflection.

Laser chirp measurement.

Modulation bandwidth measurement.

In-class exercise


Integrated Optical Devices for Variety of applications.


Concept for control of guided waves.

-          Amplitude modulation.

-          Phase modulation.

-          Deflection.

-          Diffraction.

-          Switching.

-          Mode conversion.

Physical phenomena used to control refractive index effects.

            - Electrooptic control.

            - Acoustooptic control

            - Thermooptic control

            - Nonlinear-optic control

Comparison of free space elements and integrated optical elements.

-          Beam expander.

-          Beam narrower.

-          Beam modulator.

-          Beam switching.

-          Polarizer.

Types of waveguide structures on substrate.

-          Straight, star, and y-branch waveguides.

-          Branching waveguide structure.

-          Y-combiner structure.



Basic operations of waveguide couplers.

Types of loss.

-          Throughput , tap, isolation , insertion, directionality, and excess loss.

Types of waveguide couplers.

-          Y-junction , splitter, merging couplers.

Types of fiber couplers.

-          T coupler: Grin rod and beamsplitter lenses.

-          Star coupler: Transmission and reflective star

-          Directional coupler.

-          Wavelength selectivity.

-          Wavelength division multiplexer.

-          Micro-optical coupler.

-          Fiber coupler.


Passive waveguide devices.


Directional coupling waveguides.


Integrated optical N x N star coupler.

            Introduction, design, fabrication, and experiments.

            Types: 16 x 16, 64 x 64 , 144 x 144.

                        Insertion loss, splitting uniform, index difference, minimum radius of curvature.

            High-silica planar lightwave circuit technology.

                        Flame hydrolysis deposition and reactive ion etching.


Integrated-optic power splitters and star couplers.

            In-P-based 1x16 optical splitters

                        Design structure and fabrication process.

                        Fiber pigtailed packaging method.

            Mutifunnel waveguide power splitters.

                        Slab, funnel-shaped, and output waveguides.

                        Design and fabrication process.         

            1x128 optical power splitter.

Silica-based material.

Design and fabrication methods

            Optic N x N star couplers.

                        64 x 64 and 144 x 144 star couplers.

                        High-silica planar circuit technology.

                        Flame hydrolysis deposition and reactive ion etching.

                                    SiO2 base layer, SiO2 - GeO2 core layer.

                        Design and experiments : Taper waveguides, aperture angle, curvature radius, taper angle and length.


Optical path bending devices


            Refractive-effect grating

            Reflective-effect grating


Active waveguide devices.


Wavelength Filters.

Interferometer wavelength filter.

Acoustooptic- tunable wavelength filter (AOTF).

            Characteristics of ATOF.

                        Acoustic power requirement, tuning relation, fiber bandwidth.

            Principle of operation.

            Phase-matched TM/TE converter.

                        Fabrication process : Optical waveguide, optical polarizer, acoustic absorber , transducer electrode.

            Polarization-independent ATOF.

            Spectral response measurement.

            Microring resonator optical channel dropping filters.

                        Design parameters, fabrication process, and responses.

                        Fabrication method of stacked waveguides.


Wavelength multiplexer and demultiplexer.

            Fundamental , design, and experiments.

            Arrayed waveguide N x N multiplexer.

                        Multiplexing and demultiplexing function.

                        Add/drop multilexing function.

                        N x N interconnection router.

                        Waveguide layout and operating principle.

                                    Focusing, path length difference, focal spot displacement, frequency channel spacing,

Free spectral range, grating order, channel crosstalk, frequency response.

Radius of curvature and stress.

                        Waveguide router.

            Waveguide etch and thin film deposition.

            Fabrication of arrayed-waveguide grating multilexer.

                        Material: Silicon, InP, Polymers.

                        Type: 1 x 30, 1 x 78, 7 x 7, 11 x 11, 13 x 13, 15 x 15, and 64 x 64.

            Comparison between published results of arrayed waveguide multiplexer.


Add/drop multiplexer.

            Functional description of add/drop multiplexer.

            Arrayed-waveguide NxN multiplexer functions as add/drop multiplexer

Experimental setup and results

            Mach-Zehnder based photo-induced gratings


Thin film filters

            Types of thin film filters: Bandpass, edge, grin-rod lens, multi-reflection, and fiber-end filters.

            Coating and thin film materials.

            Design techniques

            Thin film filter depositions.

                        - Plasma ion assisted deposition.

                        - Electron beam deposition.

- Bias-sputtering process.

            Test and measurement.

            Measurement mechanical durability methods

- Adhesion, environmental, and abrasion resistance.


Optical modulators

            Waveguide etch, facet coating, Titanium or nonlinear optical polymer waveguide

                        Deposition, Cr/Au metallization, and dielectric coatings.

Modulation of light: Direct and external modulation

            Wavelength chirping

            Polarization modulator

            Absorption modulator

            Amplitude modulator

            Traveling wave modulator

            Phase modulator

            Phase-matched polarization modulator


Optical amplifier.

            Principle of operation.

            Semiconductor laser type amplifier

            Erbium doped fiber amplifier.


Variable optical attenuator

            Device configuration, fabrication procedure, and experimental results

            MEMS actuator.

            Thermooptic actuator.

            Micromachine membrane thermooptic actuator.

            Tunable actuator with an optical monitoring tap.


Optical switching devices.

Phase modulator integrated with polarizer


Thermooptic waveguide device.

Interferometric modulator/switch.

Branching waveguide switches.


Polarizers and mode splitters.

            TE - TM mode converter.

            TE/TM polarization splitter.

            Photoelastic waveguide and polarizer


Components required for optical sensor


Types of optical sensors

            Amplitude sensor

            Phase sensor


Amplitude sensor

            Variable fiber coupling

            Back reflected light

            Shutter structure

            Microbending effect


Phase modulation

            Rotational effect

            Mach-Zehnder interferometer

            Multimode effect





Displacement sensor using Michelson interferometer.

Evanescent field sensor.

Gyroscope on chip and substrate.

Electric field sensor.

In class exercise






Vendor/Point of Contact:

Customer Service.



TIME : 8:00 – 5:00

FEES : $1,200.

3-way of Payment:


1.Check payable to : Lightwave Technology Corp. (Mail to: Lightwave Technology Corp.,

1564 Belle Ave. , Lakewood, Ohio 44107.

2. Purchase order attached : #                                

3. Invoice my company: Attention :

Seminar Location:

To be announced.




Date: 2 days

Time: 8:00 - 5:00

Maximum students per training section: 20

Fees: $ 7,800. ( Fee includes travel expense and class materials)



Registration by regular or electronic mail must be received at least 14 days before the first day of class (course date)


Full refund if class is cancelled. Otherwise, 20% refund less than 7 days before the first day of class. No refund is granted the first day of class.


Lightwave Technology Corp. reserves the right to cancel class if there is inadequate enrollment.