Design, Development, and Applications.


More courses related to optical areas are listed below.


Optoelectronic Technology

 Fiber Optic Communications

Fiber Optic Technology

Polymers for Optical and Microwave Applications




Course Outline

Course Materials

Who Should Attend







May 16 and 17, 2016.

May 15 and 16, 2017

Cleveland, Ohio.

Call for seminar’s location: 216-849-2512.



July 11 and 12, 2016.

July 10 and 11, 2017

Cleveland, Ohio.



October 10 and 11, 2016.

October 9 and 10, 2017

Cleveland, Ohio.



ON-SITE TRAINING: For more information, call at 216-849-2512.

Cost: $1,200.

Registration Contact: 216-849-2512

Course Description

Development and installation of fiber telecommunication and networking systems are progressing within both national telecommunication networks and more localized data communication and telemetry environments. The growth in bandwidth requires a flexible optical network. For an upgrade of the bandwidth a choice can be made between several options: using spare fibers, increasing the electronic data rate, or using multi wavelength communications. An example of how lightwave technology is influencing our society is provided by the recent use of optical fibers by the cable-television and internet industries for analog/digital distribution through a technique known as subcarrier multiplexing. This huge change from coaxial cables to optical fibers can increase the transmission capacity by an order of magnitude or more ( 109 bits per second), making it possible to transmit hundreds of channels to each subscriber. Other areas of study involve the attempt to use the massive bandwidth or spectrum-space in optical transmission media to ease or solve routing problems. For example, studies of wavelength-division multiplexing techniques look very promising for optical systems. The objective of this course is to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date account of fiber networking systems and engineering aspects are also discussed through out the course. This course will provide participants with a firm grounding in the major aspects of this new technology while giving an insight into the possible future developments within the field. The philosophy is not only to provide detailed descriptions on selective subject areas, but to deal with the material at a level that makes it immediately useful to the practicing scientist and engineer. In each section, we have provided practical problems that deal with "real-world" situations, and detailed references. No background optical communications prerequisites are expected for this course.

This course is provided into eleven parts:

  1. Overview of lightwave
  2. Sources and detectors for networking
  3. Optical fibers, cables, splicing, and connectors.
  4. Plant and field installations, equipment measurements, and testing techniques.
  5. Optical components for networking systems
  6. Photonic switching systems.
  7. SONET, Ethernet, and multi-channel transmission.
  8. Local and wide area network.
  9. Multiaccess and routing in optical network.
  10. Dense wavelength division multiplexing networks.
  11. System architectures and design consideration.



Hung D. Nguyen, Ph.D.

Dr. Nguyen is a senior engineer for the Space Communication Division of NASA Glenn Research Center at Cleveland, Ohio, where he is engaged in the development and commercialization of semiconductor integrated optoelectronics devices for high speed communication systems and fiber optic networks. He has been in the field of fiber optic networks and telecommunications for over 15 years. His areas of specialization include integrated optic devices,optic networks and telecommunications, data communications, optical and electronic packaging, and micro-lithography. He is a lead engineer and project manager in photonics and microlithography systems programs, and has been directly involved in all phases of development and implementation of integrated fiber optic systems. In addition, he has lectured and written numerous technical papers on optical networks and telecommunications systems. Dr. Nguyen earned his Ph.D. in electrical engineering and applied physics from Case Western Reserve University. BACK

Who Should Attend

Practicing engineers, consultants, marketing and sale personnel etc., desire either an introduction or overview/review of telecommunication and network systems.



  • Gain a broad understanding of almost all aspects of telecom and network systems.
  • Understanding the designs, architectures, operations, and capabilities of fiber systems
  • Be able to read the technical literature with a practical degree of understanding and to understand manufacturer's data sheets
  • Understand the structures and performances of fiber cables and many components widely used in integrated network systems
  • Grasp the practical issues and factors involved with installing and testing fiber-optic cables in plant and field environments.
  • Recognizing conventional and new telecommunication systems architectures


Course Outline

Overview of lightwave

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Ray theory transmission

Refraction and reflection

Critical angle, numerical aperature, refractive index difference

Acceptance angle

Snell's law

Fresnel reflection

Reflection coefficient effect of TE and TM polarization

Brewster angle

Types of  polarization states

            - Linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations

Jones matrix representations for

            - Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization

Field representations of polarization

Which applications require polarization

Polarizing optical systems

- Linear and rotator polarizer

- Wave retarder : Quarter-wave and half-wave retarder.

Coherent state

            - Perfect and partial-perfect coherence.

            - Coherent time

- Coherent length

Interference states

What optical systems require coherent states

            - Irradiance of coherent and incoherent waves


            - Single and multiple slits


In class exercise

Sources and Detectors for Networking.

Operating characteristics of light emitting diode (LED)

LED's structures

Types of LEDs

- Surface emitting

- Edge emitting

LED modulation and power output

Radiation pattern

Spectral width output

Tradeoff between surface-emitting and edge-emitting LED

Device performance

Device characteristics

- Modulation response, carrier lifetime, rise time

- Output power at DC and AC state

- Direct modulation of injection current.



Semiconductor laser

Operation of semiconductor laser

Types of semiconductor laser

Double Heterostructure

Buried Heterostructure

Radiation pattern of laser

Laser specification.

            - Rise and fall time.

            - Threshold current.

            - Spectral width.

Tradeoff comparison between double heterostructure and buried lasers

Characteristics of double and buried lasers

Principle of optical cavity resonator

- Free spectral range

- Mode spacing

- Number of longitudal modes

- Finesse

LED and laser emissions

Trade-off comparison between laser and LED

Types of laser diode

- Fabry-perot

- Distributed feedback

Modulation of laser

Pulse, intensity, and external modulation.


General concepts.

- Quantum efficiency

- Conversion gain

- Rise time

- Minimum detectable signal

- Noise equivalent power

Dynamic range, responsitivity, cutoff wavelength, current gain

Linear operation, dark current, signal current, bandwidth, gain factor

Types of noise

- Thermal noise

- Dark current noise

- Shot noise

- Signal to noise ratio with/without external gain

Types of photodiode

- PIN (Positive-intrinsic negative) photodiode

- APD(Avalanche photodiode)

Characteristics of photodiode

- PIN: Silicon, Germanium, InGaAs

- APD: Silicon, Germanium, InGaAs

Speed of response


Tradeoff between PIN and Avalanche detector

In class exercises


Optical Fibers, Cables, Splicing, and Connectors.


Construction of fibers

Types of fibers

            - Step-index fiber

            - Graded index fiber

            - Single-mode fiber

Fiber classifications

            - Glass fiber

- Plastic-clad-silica fiber

- Plastic fiber

Fiber performances

Dimension of fibers

Advantages/benefits of fibers


            - Intramodal dispersion: Material and waveguide.

            - Intermodal dispersion: Modal effect

Limited data rate

Methods to reduce dispersions

Characteristics of step-index, graded-index, and single-mode fibers

            - Delay difference, pulse broadening, bandwidth-length product

            - Refractive index profile, normalized frequency

Types of attenuation

            - Rayleigh scattering

- Absorption

- Bending

Multimode fibers

            - Step-index type

            - Graded-index type

- Structure and performance characteristics

- Refractive index profile

            - Normalized frequency

            - Number of guided modes.

Single-mode fibers

            - Polarization-preserving fiber

            - Structure and performance characteristics

                        - Cut-off wavelength.

                        - Beat length

Common fiber applications

Conditions of fiber cables

            Maximum pulling and operating load

            Maximum radius bending

            Operating temperature

            Mechanical resistances: Impact, crush, and flex

Main parts of cable

            Core, cladding, silicone coating.

            Buffer, tape, strength member, outer jacket.

Considerations of cable

            Strength member

            Tensile strength

            Axial force

            Crush resistance

            Torsional/bending stress

            Sharp bend

            Moisture and chemical exposure

Two types of materials.

            Dielectric and nondielectric cables

Cable type

            Riser and plenum materials

Buffer coating

Three different buffering systems

Two types of buffer coating.

            Loose buffer

            Tight buffer

Simplex cable

            Single optical fiber

            One-way transmission

            Direct connectorization

Duplex cable

            Two-way transmission

Multifiber cable

            Trunk transmission links

Ribbon cable

            High density interconnection.

Indoor and outdoor cable

Interconnect cable

Distribution cable

Subgrouping cable

            Routed to multiple locations

Arial cable

            UV and weather resistance.

Armored cable

            Loose tube type.

Military tactical cable

Communications and sensing cables

Aerospace cable

Cable installation

            Underground installation

            Aerial installation

            Indoor installation

            Conduit installation

Cables for different applications.

            Submarine and undersea.



            Metropolitan area networks

Connectors and Splices


            Throughput loss

            Return loss

            Requirements of good connectors

Multifiber connectors

Mutimode and singlemode connectors

Types of connectors

Connector adapters

Types of splicing

            Fusion splicing

            Mechanical splicing

            Tube splicing

            V-groove splicing

Massive ribbon

Metal rod

Non-adhesive splice

Loss in fiber-to-fiber connection

            Roughness surface

            Lateral misalignment

            Angular misalignment

            Gap between ends

Types of loss

            Insertion, excess, return, and coupling loss


Plant and Field Installations, Equipment Measurements, and Testing Techniques.


Field measurements.

Optical source for loss measurements.

Optical test sets.

Continuity test.

Attenuation measurement

-          Mode stripper.

-          Mode filter.

Fiber loss measurement.

-          Cut back method.

Localization of near-end faults.

Dispersion measurement.

-          Time domain method.

-          Frequency domain method

Optical analyzer.

            Attenuation as a function of source wavelength.

            Bandwidth and dispersion.

            Numerical aperture

Connectorized loss measurement.

-          Multimode connectors.

-          Single mode connectors.

Test double end connectorized cables.

Optical component loss measurement.

Scattering loss measurement.

Free space power measurement.

Numerical aperture measurement.

Transmission loss for optical waveguide

            Cut-back technique

            Prism technique.

Wavelength measurement.

Spectral measurement.

Laser line-width measurement

Return loss measurement.

            Back reflection.

Laser chirp measurement.

Modulation bandwidth measurement.

Bit error rate.

Optical time-domain reflectometer. (OTDR)

            Link loss measurements

            Reflecance and return loss measurement

            Length measurement

            Breaks in cable

            Splice evaluation

            Fault location

Measurement of coherence time and length


Optical Components for Networking Systems


Passive and active devices.

Basic operations of couplers.

Types of loss.

-          Throughput , tap, isolation , insertion, directionality, and excess loss.

Types of waveguide couplers.

-          Y-junction , splitter, merging couplers.

Types of fiber couplers.

-          T coupler: Grin rod and beamsplitter lenses.

-          Star coupler: Transmission and reflective star

-          Directional coupler.

-          Wavelength selectivity.

-          Wavelength division multiplexer.

-          Micro-optical coupler.

-          Fiber coupler.



Grin-rod lens and interference filter

Interference filter

Bragg gratings

Mode filter

Concave grating filter


Mach-Zehnder interferometer

Power splitter

            Directional coupler


Interferometer wavelength filter.

Acoustic-optical tunable filter


                        Channel separation

                        Wavelength isolation

            Electro-optic filter

            Semiconductor distributed-feedback filter

Wavelength-division multiplexer.

Optical modulators

            Modulation of light: Direct and external modulation

            Wavelength chirping

            Polarization modulator

            Absorption modulator

            Amplitude modulator

            Traveling wave modulator

            Phase modulator

            Phase-matched polarization modulator

Semiconductor and doped-fiber amplifier

            Fabry-perot amplifier

            Traveling wave amplifier



Photonic Switching Systems.


Overview of optical switching technologies.

Technology advances.

Photonic switch applications.

            Device demonstrations and designs

Wideband packet switch networks.

Optical switching networks.

-          Packet switched architecture.

-          Ring switch architecture.

-          Spacing-division switching network.

-          Time-division multiplexing switching network.

·         Linear bus configuration.

·         Binary tree configuration.

-          Wavelength division switching network.

-          Crossbar model.

·         Point-to-point architecture.

·         Number of switch elements, signal-to-noise ratio, insertion loss.

-          N-stage planar model.

·         Point-to-point architecture.

·         N stages of switch elements (directional couplers).

·         Number of switch elements, signal-to-noise ratio, insertion loss.

-          Double crossbar model.

·         Point-to-point architecture.

·         Number of switch elements, signal-to-noise ratio, insertion loss.

-          Benes model.

·         Point-to-point architecture.

·         Number of switch elements, signal-to-noise ratio, insertion loss.

-          Clos model.

·         Point-to-point architecture.

·         Number of switch elements, signal-to-noise ratio, insertion loss.

-          Multiple substrate architectures.

·         Two stage point- to- point architecture.

·         Two stage broadcast architecture.

-          Micro-mechanical 2 x 2 switch.

-          Free-space MEMS optical switch.

Optical path bending device


            Refractive-effect grating

            Reflective-effect grating

Optical switching devices.

            Directional switching coupler

            Internal reflection switch

            Brag-diffraction switch

            Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch


SONET, Ethernet, and Multichannel transmission.


Synchronous optical network. (SONET)

-          Synchronous frame structure.

-          Transport overhead

-          Path overhead

-          Payload envelope.

-          SONET point-to-point link

-          SONET chain of add/drop multiplexer.

-          SONET ring of add/drop multiplexer.


            -      Active star coupler

            -      Passive star coupler

            -      Ethernet LAN expansion.

-          Collision detection.

-          Token-passing ring.

Types of optical transmission.

-          Time division multiplexing system.

-          Wavelength division multiplexing system.

-          Frequency division multiplexing system.

Multi-channel transmission.

-          One direction.

-          Two direction.


-  Electrical multiplexer.

-  Optical multiplexer.

High-capacity multichannel system.

-          Tunable filter DFB laser

-          Erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

-          Add/drop multiplexer

Trunk-and-branch network.

Fiber-oriented wireless access system.

-          Main carriers.

-          Subcarriers.

-          Signal extraction with frequency arrangement.

Wide-band video service in local network.

-          Direct modulation method

-          External modulation method.

-          System performance.

System evaluation.

Photonic RF mixer /transmitter/receiver.

CATV system architecture

Central office systems.

-          Central office network topology.


Local Area Network


Wavelength division multiplexing network.

            - Model of local access network

            - Hub.

            - Feeder

            - Distribution

            - Network interface unit.

Architecture of broadband/access network.

            -       Bus configuration: Connection between central offices and remote notes.

            -       Star-star configuration: High number of subscribers (internet's users)

Residential broadband network.

Local distribution network.

Overview of local area network.

            - Distribution of high-speed digital signals.

            - Workgroup, organization, and enterprise LANs

            - Schematic of long-haul / loop distribution transmission.

Local area networks (LAN) configurations.

-          Star network.

-          Ring network.

-          Mesh network.

-          Bus network.

-          Tree network.

LAN architectures.

-          Broadband integrated digital service network (B-IDSN).

-          Fiber-to-home and business buildings.

-          Remote-to-home nodes.

-          Central office and remote station.

Branching/inversion of optical signal

Distribution network.

-          Power splitting optical network.

-          Wavelength division multiplexing network.

-          Multifrequency laser and detection network.

Corporate-network ring.


Multiaccess and Routing in Optical Networks.


System integration process.

-          Point-to-point link.

-          Point-to-multipoint: Broadcast.

-          Multipoint-to-point: Network.

-          Half-duplex transmission

-          Full-duplex transmission.

Categories of transmission systems.

            - Short, medium, and long distance.

Broadband network architecture.

            -  Master hub.

            -  Link hub

            -  Remote note.

All optical network architectures.

            - High-speed wavelength division multiplexer.

            - Wide area network.

            - Metropolitan area network.

            - Local area network.

Optical network technology consortium all-optical network.

Bi-directional multiplexing transmission.

            -      Space division.

-          Wavelength division.

-          Wavelength splitter.

-          Polarization division.

-          Optical circulator.

Trunk-and-branch network.

Fiber-oriented wireless access system.

-          Main carriers.

-          Subcarriers.

-          Signal extraction with frequency arrangement.

Wide-band video service in local network.

-          Direct modulation method

-          External modulation method.

-          System performance.

System evaluation.

Photonic RF mixer /transmitter/receiver.

CATV system architecture

Central office systems.

-          Central office network topology.

Optical add/drop technology.

Regional hub WDM ring network.

Undersea lightwave system.


Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Networks.


Principles and applications.

Wavelength routing network.

Broadcast and select network.

            Wavelength selective space division switching fabric.

            Wavelength switch.

            Point-to-point connection.

            Multicast connection.

Network applications of acoustooptic tunable wavelength filter (AOTF).

            Add-drop node for WDM systems.  

            Local loop distribution .

            Tunable wavelength tap.


System Architecture and Design Consideration


System design considerations

            - Short distance- LAN system.

            - Medium distance- Inter-central office system.

            - Long distance- Toll-office trunk system.

Influence of system choice

Bandwidth, loss budget, size and weight consideration,

system cost, reliability, distance of operations.

Launched power, fiber choice, component loss, total channel loss

Signal-to-noise ratio, system rise time, maximum bit rate

Required safety margin, receiver sensitivity.

Fiber transmission systems.

Optical/digital transmission link.

Components of fiber link.

-          Transmitter

-          Channel.

-          Receiver.

Bandwidth limited by dispersion.

Maximum transmission distance limited by dispersion.

System power budget.

In-class exercise.


Vendor/Point of Contact:

Hung Nguyen, Ph.D.







TIME : 8:00 – 5:00

FEES : $1,200.

3-way of Payment:


1.Check payable to : Lightwave Technology Corp. (Mail to: Lightwave Technology Corp.,

                                 1564 Belle Ave., Lakewood, Ohio 44107.

2. Purchase order attached : #                                

3. Invoice my company: Attention :

Seminar Location:

To be announced.




Date: 2 days

Time: 8:00 - 5:00

Maximum students per training section: 20

Fees: $ 7,800. ( Fee includes travel expense and class materials) 



Registration by regular or electronic mail must be received at least 14 days before the first day of class (course date)


Full refund if class is cancelled. Otherwise, 20% refund less than 7 days before the first day of class. No refund is granted the first day of class.


Lightwave Technology Corp. reserves the right to cancel class if there is inadequate enrollment.