FIBER OPTIC TECHNOLOGY

Concept design and practical applications

 


More courses related to optical areas are listed below.

 

Optoelectronic Technology

Optical Networks

 Fiber Optic Communications

Polymers for Optical and Microwave Applications

 

Course Description

Instructor

Course Outline

Course Materials

Who Should Attend

Locations

Benefits

REGISTER

Homepage

 

DATES AND LOCATIONS

June 13 and 14, 2016.

June 12 and 13, 2017.

Cleveland, Ohio.

Call for seminar’s location: 216-849-2512

 

September 26 and 27, 2016.

September 25 and 26, 2017

Cleveland, Ohio.

 

November 14 and 15, 2016.

November 13 and 14, 2017

Cleveland, Ohio.

 

 

 

ON-SITE TRAINING: For more information, call at 216-849-2512.

Cost: $1,200.

Registration Contact: 216-849-2512

Course Description

Fiber optic technology has been grown rapidly in the last decade as is evident from the installation of fiber-optic telecommunication networks throughout the world. It is further exemplified by the deployment of undersea fiber cables across the Pacific ocean. The aim of this course is to present a complete overview  of  all areas in fiber optic technology. Emphasis is given to the practical aspects of optical systems, installation, applications, equipment, and components. It also covers the state-of-the art developments in optical products, procedures and applications. The amount of mathematics has been reduced to a minimum and emphasis is placed on the practical application of the theory. Each topic starts from fundamental principles and progresses to present-day technology, so the material is also of interest to managerial staff who may not have had time to keep up with all the latest technical advances. After completion of this course, the participant should be able to read the technical literature, to recognize the significance of new devices and new communication system techniques as they are developed and reported, and to design and implement optical networking systems.   In each section, we have provided practical problems that deal with "real-world" situations, and detailed references. No background communication prerequisites are expected for this course. This course will be of a level suitable for researchers in the above fields, practitioners, engineers, consultants, etc., with an emphasis on readability, clarity, relevance, and applicability. Vast amounts of background knowledge should not be required because this course is not so much a treatise on the underlying physics of the technology but more a discussion  of today’s experimental reality.

This course is provided into nine parts:

            1. Overview of lightwave

            2. Sources

            3. Detectors

            4. Optical fibers and cables.

            5. Fiber splicing and connectors

            6. Test, evaluation, and equipment measurements.

            7. Optical fiber components for variety of applications

            8.  Industrial applications of optical sensors.

            9. Fiber optic link and system considerations

           

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Instructor

Hung D. Nguyen, Ph.D.

Dr. Nguyen is a senior engineer for the Space Communication Division of NASA Glenn Research Center at Cleveland, Ohio, where he is engaged in the development and commercialization of semiconductor integrated optoelectronics devices for high speed communication systems and fiber optic networks. He has been in the field of fiber optic networks and telecommunications for over 15 years. His areas of specialization include integrated optic devices,optic networks and telecommunications, data communications, optical and electronic packaging, and micro-lithography. He is a lead engineer and project manager in photonics and microlithography systems programs, and has been directly involved in all phases of development and implementation of integrated fiber optic systems. In addition, he has lectured and written numerous technical papers on optical networks and telecommunications systems. Dr. Nguyen earned his Ph.D. in electrical engineering and applied physics from Case Western Reserve University. BACK

Who Should Attend

This course is suitable to anyone who is already engaged in or wishing to enter the area of optical fibers, or responsible for installation, maintaining, testing and updating optical systems.

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Benefits

  • Be able to evaluate, troubleshoot, and implement optical systems.
  • Be able to read the technical literature with a practical degree of understanding and  know how to choose the right components for any particular applications.
  • Understanding the design, operation, and performance of optical systems.
  • Grasp the practical issues and factors involved with installing and testing fiber-optic cables in plant and field environments.
  • Be able to maintain, repair, and install fibers and cables

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Course Outline

Overview of lightwave

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Ray theory transmission

Refraction and reflection

Critical angle, numerical aperature, refractive index difference

Acceptance angle

Snell's law

Fresnel reflection

Reflection coefficient effect of TE and TM polarization

Brewster angle

Types of  polarization states

            - Linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations

Jones matrix representations for

            - Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization

Field representations of polarization

Which applications require polarization

Polarizing optical systems

- Linear and rotator polarizer

- Wave retarder : Quarter-wave and half-wave retarder.

Coherent state

            - Perfect and partial-perfect coherence.

            - Coherent time

- Coherent length

Interference states

What optical systems require coherent states

            - Irradiance of coherent and incoherent waves

Diffraction

            - Single and multiple slits

Interference

In class exercise

 

Optical Sources

 

Operating characteristics of light emitting diode (LED)

LED's structures

Types of LEDs

- Surface emitting

- Edge emitting

LED modulation and power output

Radiation pattern

Spectral width output

Tradeoff between surface-emitting and edge-emitting LED

Device performance

Device characteristics

- Modulation response, carrier lifetime, rise time

- Output power at DC and AC state

- Direct modulation of injection current.

Reliability

Applications

Semiconductor laser

Operation of semiconductor laser

Types of semiconductor laser

Double Heterostructure

Buried Heterostructure

Radiation pattern of laser

Laser specification.

            - Rise and fall time.

            - Threshold current.

            - Spectral width.

Tradeoff comparison between double heterostructure and buried lasers

Characteristics of double and buried lasers

Principle of optical cavity resonator

- Free spectral range

- Mode spacing

- Number of longitudal modes

- Finesse

LED and laser emissions

Trade-off comparison between laser and LED

Types of laser diode

- Fabry-perot

- Distributed feedback

Modulation of laser

Pulse, intensity, and external modulation.

In class exercises

Optical Detector

General concepts.

- Quantum efficiency

- Conversion gain

- Rise time

- Minimum detectable signal

- Noise equivalent power

Dynamic range, responsitivity, cutoff wavelength, current gain

Linear operation, dark current, signal current, bandwidth, gain factor

Types of noise

- Thermal noise

- Dark current noise

- Shot noise

- Signal to noise ratio with/without external gain

Types of photodiode

- PIN (Positive-intrinsic negative) photodiode

- APD(Avalanche photodiode)

Characteristics of photodiode

- PIN: Silicon, Germanium, InGaAs

- APD: Silicon, Germanium, InGaAs

Speed of response

Bandwidth

Tradeoff between PIN and Avalanche detector

In class exercises

 

 Optical Fibers and Cables

 

Construction of fibers

Types of fibers

            - Step-index fiber

            - Graded index fiber

            - Single-mode fiber

Fiber classifications

            - Glass fiber

- Plastic-clad-silica fiber

- Plastic fiber

Fiber performances

Dimension of fibers

Advantages/benefits of fibers

Dispersions

            - Intramodal dispersion: Material and waveguide.

            - Intermodal dispersion: Modal effect

Limited data rate

Methods to reduce dispersions

Characteristics of step-index, graded-index, and single-mode fibers

            - Delay difference, pulse broadening, bandwidth-length product

            - Refractive index profile, normalized frequency

Types of attenuation

            - Rayleigh scattering

- Absorption

- Bending

Multimode fibers

            - Step-index type

            - Graded-index type

- Structure and performance characteristics

- Refractive index profile

            - Normalized frequency

            - Number of guided modes.

Single-mode fibers

            - Polarization-preserving fiber

            - Structure and performance characteristics

                        - Cut-off wavelength.

                        - Beat length

Common fiber applications

In class exercise

 

Conditions of fiber cables

            Maximum pulling and operating load

            Maximum radius bending

            Operating temperature

            Mechanical resistances: Impact, crush, and flex

Main parts of cable

            Core, cladding, silicone coating.

            Buffer, tape, strength member, outer jacket.

Considerations of cable

            Strength member

            Tensile strength

            Axial force

            Crush resistance

            Torsional/bending stress

            Sharp bend

            Moisture and chemical exposure

Two types of materials.

            Dielectric and nondielectric cables

Cable type

            Riser and plenum materials

Buffer coating

Three different buffering systems

Two types of buffer coating.

            Loose buffer

            Tight buffer

Simplex cable

            Single optical fiber

            One-way transmission

            Direct connectorization

Duplex cable

            Two-way transmission

Multifiber cable

            Trunk transmission links

Ribbon cable

            High density interconnection.

Indoor and outdoor cable

Interconnect cable

Distribution cable

Subgrouping cable

            Routed to multiple locations

Arial cable

            UV and weather resistance.

Armored cable

            Loose tube type.

Military tactical cable

Communications and sensing cables

Aerospace cable

Cable installation

            Underground installation

            Aerial installation

            Indoor installation

            Conduit installation

Cables for different applications.

            Submarine and undersea.

            Industrial.

            Military

            Metropolitan area networks

 

Fiber Splicing and Connectors

 

Connectors and Splices

Introduction

            Throughput loss

            Return loss

            Requirements of good connectors

Multifiber connectors

Mutimode and singlemode connectors

Types of connectors

Connector adapters

Types of splicing

            Fusion splicing

            Mechanical splicing

            Tube splicing

            V-groove splicing

Massive ribbon

Metal rod

Non-adhesive splice

Loss in fiber-to-fiber connection

            Roughness surface

            Lateral misalignment

            Angular misalignment

            Gap between ends

Types of loss

            Insertion, excess, return, and coupling loss

 

Test, Evaluation, and Equipment Measurement

 

Field measurements.

Optical source for loss measurements.

Optical test sets.

Continuity test.

Attenuation measurement

-          Mode stripper.

-          Mode filter.

Fiber loss measurement.

-          Cut back method.

Localization of near-end faults.

Dispersion measurement.

-          Time domain method.

-          Frequency domain method

Optical analyzer.

            Attenuation as a function of source wavelength.

            Bandwidth and dispersion.

            Numerical aperture

Connectorized loss measurement.

-          Multimode connectors.

-          Single mode connectors.

Test double end connectorized cables.

Optical component loss measurement.

Scattering loss measurement.

Free space power measurement.

Numerical aperture measurement.

Transmission loss for optical waveguide

            Cut-back technique

            Prism technique.

Wavelength measurement.

Spectral measurement.

Laser line-width measurement

Return loss measurement.

            Back reflection.

Laser chirp measurement.

Modulation bandwidth measurement.

Bit error rate.

Optical time-domain reflectometer. (OTDR)

            Link loss measurements

            Reflecance and return loss measurement

            Length measurement

            Breaks in cable

            Splice evaluation

            Fault location

Measurement of coherence time and length

 

Optical Fiber Components and System Applications

 

Physical phenomena used to control guided waves.

-          Amplitude modulation.

-          Phase modulation.

-          Deflection.

-          Diffraction. Switching.

-          Mode conversion.

Comparison of free space elements and integrated optical elements.

-          Beam expander.

-          Beam narrower.

-          Beam modulator.

-          Beam switching.

-          Polarizer.

Types of waveguide structures on substrate.

-          Straight, star, and y-branch waveguides.

-          Branching waveguide structure.

-          Y-combiner structure.

Reciprocity.

Displacement sensor using Michelson interferometer.

Evanescent field sensor.

Gyroscope on chip and substrate.

Electric field sensor.

Passive and active devices.

Basic operations of couplers.

Types of loss.

-          Throughput , tap, isolation , insertion, directionality, and excess loss.

Types of waveguide couplers.

-          Y-junction , splitter, merging couplers.

Types of fiber couplers.

-          T coupler: Grin rod and beamsplitter lenses.

-          Star coupler: Transmission and reflective star

-          Directional coupler.

-          Wavelength selectivity.

-          Wavelength division multiplexer.

-          Micro-optical coupler.

-          Fiber coupler.

 

Passive waveguide devices.

 

Concept of coupling between waveguides.

            Coupling length

Directional coupling waveguides.

Single mode optical 1 x N star coupler

Demultiplexer

Diffraction-grating

Grin-rod lens and interference filter

Interference filter

Bragg gratings

Mode filter

Concave grating filter

Multiplexer

Mach-Zehnder interferometer

Power splitter

            Directional coupler

Optical path bending device

            Facet-mirror

            Refractive-effect grating

            Reflective-effect grating

 

Active waveguide devices.

 

Filter

Interferometer wavelength filter.

Acoustic-optical tunable filter

                        Cross-talk

                        Channel separation

                        Wavelength isolation

            Electro-optic filter

            Semiconductor distributed-feedback filter

Wavelength-division multiplexer.

Optical modulators

            Modulation of light: Direct and external modulation

            Wavelength chirping

            Polarization modulator

            Absorption modulator

            Amplitude modulator

            Traveling wave modulator

            Phase modulator

            Phase-matched polarization modulator

Optical switching devices.

            Directional switching coupler

            Internal reflection switch

            Brag-diffraction switch

            Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch

Phase modulator integrated with polarizer

Polarization controller.

            TE - TM mode converter.

            TE/TM polarization splitter.

            Photoelastic waveguide and polarizer

 

Optical isolator

Circulator.

Semiconductor and doped-fiber amplifier

            Fabry-perot amplifier

            Traveling wave amplifier

Attenuator

 

Industrial Applications of Optical Sensors

 

 

Introduction

Components required for optical sensor

Types of optical sensors

            Amplitude sensor

            Phase sensor

Amplitude sensor

            Variable fiber coupling

            Back reflected light

            Shutter structure

            Microbending effect

Phase modulation

            Rotational effect

            Mach-Zehnder interferometer

            Multimode effect

Variations of detection

Advantages of optical sensors

Two classes of sensing devices

            Extrinsic sensor

            Intrinsic sensor

Intensity-Modulated sensor

            Grating concept

Shutter concept

Microswitching concept

Displacement sensor

            Longitude concept

Differential concept

Vertical, and angular effect

Attenuation sensor

            Microbend concept

Chemical in water effect

Cross-talk concept

Level effect

Reflective sensor

            Single fiber

            Fiber bundle

Multimode optical fiber sensors

            Types of measurements

                        Movement

                        Position

                        Displacement

                        Temperature

                        Pressure

Single mode fiber sensors

            Types of interferometer.

                        Mach-Zehnder

                        Michelson

                        Fabry perot

            Sagnac

In class exercise

 

Fiber Optic Link and System Considerations

 

System design considerations

            - Short distance- LAN system.

            - Medium distance- Inter-central office system.

            - Long distance- Toll-office trunk system.

Influence of system choice

Bandwidth, loss budget, size and weight consideration,

system cost, reliability, distance of operations.

Launched power, fiber choice, component loss, total channel loss

Signal-to-noise ratio, system rise time, maximum bit rate

Required safety margin, receiver sensitivity.

Fiber transmission systems.

Optical/digital transmission link.

Components of fiber link.

-          Transmitter

-          Channel.

-          Receiver.

Bandwidth limited by dispersion.

Maximum transmission distance limited by dispersion.

System power budget.

In-class exercise.

 

BACK

 

INFORMATION ON REGISTRATION.

 

TIME :8:00 – 5:00

FEES : $1,200.

3-way of Payment:

 

1.Check payable to : Lightwave Technology Corp. (Mail to: Lightwave Technology Corp.,

1564 Belle Ave., Lakewood, Ohio 44107.

2. Purchase order attached : #                                

3. Invoice my company: Attention :

Seminar Location:

To be announced.

 

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IN-HOUSE SEMINAR INFORMATION

Date: 2 days

Time: 8:00 - 5:00

Maximum students per training section: 20

Fees: $ 7,800. ( Fee includes travel expense and class materials) 

POLICY

 DEAD LINE REGISTRATION

Registration by regular or electronic mail must be received at least 14 days before the first day of class (course date)

REFUND POLICY

Full refund if class is cancelled. Otherwise, 20% refund less than 7 days before the first day of class. No refund is granted the first day of class.

 

Lightwave Technology Corp. reserves the right to cancel class if there is inadequate enrollment.