FIBER OPTIC TECHNOLOGY
Concept design and practical applications
More courses related to optical areas are listed below.
DATES AND LOCATIONS
June 13 and 14, 2016.
June 12 and 13, 2017.
Call for seminar’s location: 216-849-2512
September 26 and 27, 2016.
September 25 and 26, 2017
November 14 and 15, 2016.
November 13 and 14, 2017
ON-SITE TRAINING: For more information, call at 216-849-2512.
Registration Contact: 216-849-2512
Fiber optic technology has been
grown rapidly in the last decade as is evident from the installation of
fiber-optic telecommunication networks throughout the world. It is further
exemplified by the deployment of undersea fiber cables across the
This course is provided into nine parts:
1. Overview of lightwave
4. Optical fibers and cables.
5. Fiber splicing and connectors
6. Test, evaluation, and equipment measurements.
7. Optical fiber components for variety of applications
8. Industrial applications of optical sensors.
9. Fiber optic link and system considerations
Hung D. Nguyen, Ph.D.
Dr. Nguyen is a senior engineer for the Space Communication Division of NASA
Glenn Research Center at
This course is suitable to anyone who is already engaged in or wishing to enter the area of optical fibers, or responsible for installation, maintaining, testing and updating optical systems.
Overview of lightwave
Ray theory transmission
Refraction and reflection
Critical angle, numerical aperature, refractive index difference
Reflection coefficient effect of TE and TM polarization
Types of polarization states
- Linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations
Jones matrix representations for
- Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Field representations of polarization
Which applications require polarization
Polarizing optical systems
- Linear and rotator polarizer
- Wave retarder : Quarter-wave and half-wave retarder.
- Perfect and partial-perfect coherence.
- Coherent time
- Coherent length
What optical systems require coherent states
- Irradiance of coherent and incoherent waves
- Single and multiple slits
In class exercise
Operating characteristics of light emitting diode (LED)
Types of LEDs
- Surface emitting
- Edge emitting
LED modulation and power output
Spectral width output
Tradeoff between surface-emitting and edge-emitting LED
- Modulation response, carrier lifetime, rise time
- Output power at DC and AC state
- Direct modulation of injection current.
Operation of semiconductor laser
Types of semiconductor laser
Radiation pattern of laser
- Rise and fall time.
- Threshold current.
- Spectral width.
Tradeoff comparison between double heterostructure and buried lasers
Characteristics of double and buried lasers
Principle of optical cavity resonator
- Free spectral range
- Mode spacing
- Number of longitudal modes
LED and laser emissions
Trade-off comparison between laser and LED
Types of laser diode
- Distributed feedback
Modulation of laser
Pulse, intensity, and external modulation.
In class exercises
- Quantum efficiency
- Conversion gain
- Rise time
- Minimum detectable signal
- Noise equivalent power
Dynamic range, responsitivity, cutoff wavelength, current gain
Linear operation, dark current, signal current, bandwidth, gain factor
Types of noise
- Thermal noise
- Dark current noise
- Shot noise
- Signal to noise ratio with/without external gain
Types of photodiode
- PIN (Positive-intrinsic negative) photodiode
- APD(Avalanche photodiode)
Characteristics of photodiode
- PIN: Silicon, Germanium, InGaAs
- APD: Silicon, Germanium, InGaAs
Speed of response
Tradeoff between PIN and Avalanche detector
In class exercises
Optical Fibers and Cables
Construction of fibers
Types of fibers
- Step-index fiber
- Graded index fiber
- Single-mode fiber
- Glass fiber
- Plastic-clad-silica fiber
- Plastic fiber
Dimension of fibers
Advantages/benefits of fibers
- Intramodal dispersion: Material and waveguide.
- Intermodal dispersion: Modal effect
Limited data rate
Methods to reduce dispersions
Characteristics of step-index, graded-index, and single-mode fibers
- Delay difference, pulse broadening, bandwidth-length product
- Refractive index profile, normalized frequency
Types of attenuation
- Rayleigh scattering
- Step-index type
- Graded-index type
- Structure and performance characteristics
- Refractive index profile
- Normalized frequency
- Number of guided modes.
- Polarization-preserving fiber
- Structure and performance characteristics
- Cut-off wavelength.
- Beat length
Common fiber applications
In class exercise
Conditions of fiber cables
Maximum pulling and operating load
Maximum radius bending
Mechanical resistances: Impact, crush, and flex
Main parts of cable
Core, cladding, silicone coating.
Buffer, tape, strength member, outer jacket.
Considerations of cable
Moisture and chemical exposure
Two types of materials.
Dielectric and nondielectric cables
Riser and plenum materials
Three different buffering systems
Two types of buffer coating.
Single optical fiber
Trunk transmission links
High density interconnection.
Indoor and outdoor cable
Routed to multiple locations
UV and weather resistance.
Loose tube type.
Military tactical cable
Communications and sensing cables
Cables for different applications.
Submarine and undersea.
Metropolitan area networks
Fiber Splicing and Connectors
Connectors and Splices
Requirements of good connectors
Mutimode and singlemode connectors
Types of connectors
Types of splicing
Loss in fiber-to-fiber connection
Gap between ends
Types of loss
Insertion, excess, return, and coupling loss
Test, Evaluation, and Equipment Measurement
Optical source for loss measurements.
Optical test sets.
- Mode stripper.
- Mode filter.
Fiber loss measurement.
- Cut back method.
Localization of near-end faults.
- Time domain method.
- Frequency domain method
Attenuation as a function of source wavelength.
Bandwidth and dispersion.
Connectorized loss measurement.
- Multimode connectors.
- Single mode connectors.
Test double end connectorized cables.
Optical component loss measurement.
Scattering loss measurement.
Free space power measurement.
Numerical aperture measurement.
Transmission loss for optical waveguide
Laser line-width measurement
Return loss measurement.
Laser chirp measurement.
Modulation bandwidth measurement.
Bit error rate.
Optical time-domain reflectometer. (OTDR)
Link loss measurements
Reflecance and return loss measurement
Breaks in cable
Measurement of coherence time and length
Optical Fiber Components and System Applications
Physical phenomena used to control guided waves.
- Amplitude modulation.
- Phase modulation.
- Diffraction. Switching.
- Mode conversion.
Comparison of free space elements and integrated optical elements.
- Beam expander.
- Beam narrower.
- Beam modulator.
- Beam switching.
Types of waveguide structures on substrate.
- Straight, star, and y-branch waveguides.
- Branching waveguide structure.
- Y-combiner structure.
Displacement sensor using Michelson interferometer.
Evanescent field sensor.
Gyroscope on chip and substrate.
Electric field sensor.
Passive and active devices.
Basic operations of couplers.
Types of loss.
- Throughput , tap, isolation , insertion, directionality, and excess loss.
Types of waveguide couplers.
- Y-junction , splitter, merging couplers.
Types of fiber couplers.
- T coupler: Grin rod and beamsplitter lenses.
- Star coupler: Transmission and reflective star
- Directional coupler.
- Wavelength selectivity.
- Wavelength division multiplexer.
- Micro-optical coupler.
- Fiber coupler.
Passive waveguide devices.
Concept of coupling between waveguides.
Directional coupling waveguides.
Single mode optical 1 x N star coupler
Grin-rod lens and interference filter
Concave grating filter
Optical path bending device
Active waveguide devices.
Interferometer wavelength filter.
Acoustic-optical tunable filter
Semiconductor distributed-feedback filter
Modulation of light: Direct and external modulation
Traveling wave modulator
Phase-matched polarization modulator
Optical switching devices.
Directional switching coupler
Internal reflection switch
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch
Phase modulator integrated with polarizer
TE - TM mode converter.
TE/TM polarization splitter.
Photoelastic waveguide and polarizer
Semiconductor and doped-fiber amplifier
Traveling wave amplifier
Industrial Applications of Optical Sensors
Components required for optical sensor
Types of optical sensors
Variable fiber coupling
Back reflected light
Variations of detection
Advantages of optical sensors
Two classes of sensing devices
Vertical, and angular effect
Chemical in water effect
Multimode optical fiber sensors
Types of measurements
Single mode fiber sensors
Types of interferometer.
In class exercise
Fiber Optic Link and System Considerations
System design considerations
- Short distance- LAN system.
- Medium distance- Inter-central office system.
- Long distance- Toll-office trunk system.
Influence of system choice
Bandwidth, loss budget, size and weight consideration,
system cost, reliability, distance of operations.
Launched power, fiber choice, component loss, total channel loss
Signal-to-noise ratio, system rise time, maximum bit rate
Required safety margin, receiver sensitivity.
Fiber transmission systems.
Optical/digital transmission link.
Components of fiber link.
Bandwidth limited by dispersion.
Maximum transmission distance limited by dispersion.
System power budget.
INFORMATION ON REGISTRATION.
TIME :8:00 – 5:00
FEES : $1,200.
3-way of Payment:
1.Check payable to : Lightwave Technology Corp. (Mail to: Lightwave Technology Corp.,
2. Purchase order attached : #
3. Invoice my company: Attention :
To be announced.
DEAD LINE REGISTRATION
Registration by regular or electronic mail must be received at least 14 days before the first day of class (course date)
Full refund if class is cancelled. Otherwise, 20% refund less than 7 days before the first day of class. No refund is granted the first day of class.
Lightwave Technology Corp. reserves the right to cancel class if there is inadequate enrollment.