Design, Measurement, and Applications


More courses related to optical areas are listed below.


Optoelectronic Technology

Optical Networks

Fiber Optic Technology

Polymers for Optical and Microwave Applications


Course Description


Course Outline

Course Materials

Who Should Attend








May 23 and 24, 2016.

May 22 and 23,2017

Cleveland, Ohio.



October 17 and 18, 2016.

October 16 and 17, 2017.

Cleveland, Ohio.


November 21 and 22, 2016.

November 20 and 21, 2017

Cleveland, Ohio.



ON-SITE TRAINING: Call for more information at 216-849-2512

Cost: $1,200.

Registration Contact: 216-849-2512

Course Description

Optical communication systems have progressed very rapidly from the research labs into commercial applications. They have already established within the transport network as-point-to point links, broadcast distribution, and interconnecting electrical nodes. Currently the progress of this technology is significantly in the diffusion of multi-wavelength extended capacity links with wavelength routing at the nodes and add-drop operations on the high-data information flowing in the optical domain. Future optical communication networks for terabit transmission rates require the use of optical routing to cope with ever increasing capacity demand due to growing internet traffic. They have been advancing to achieve enhanced personal and multimedia communications. Subcarrier optical transmission is expected to yield simple terminal equipment for many kinds of radio communication and broadcasting applications, because it offers wide-band and multicarrier transmission. As optical communication system technologies have improved, an increasing variety of applications have become technically feasible and economically attractive. The objective of this course is to provide a comprehensive overview of communication systems in the form of guidelines for designing, implementing, and testing optical systems. It offers fundamental insights as well as practical application/implementation of optical transmission systems. Both detection systems and coherent systems are described and many other techniques are presented both theoretically and experimentally in the form of numerous demonstration systems and detailed measurements, including bit-error rate, signal-to-noise ratio, crosstalk, etc. An engineering design and development are maintained through most of the sections. An attempt is made to include as much recent material as possible so that the participants are exposed to the recent advances in the field. In each section, we have provided practical problems that deal with "real-world" situations, and detailed references..No background communications prerequisites are expected for this course.


This course is provided into eight parts:


1. Overview of lightwave

2. Semiconductor laser sources and photodetectors.

3. Optical fibers, cables, and connections.

4. Fiber equipment measurements.

5. Optical components and sensors for communication applications.

6. System design and performance

7. Direct detection and coherent lightwave systems

8. Multichannel optical systems



Hung D. Nguyen, Ph.D.

Dr. Nguyen is a senior engineer for the Space Communication Division of NASA Glenn Research Center at Cleveland, Ohio, where he is engaged in the development and commercialization of semiconductor integrated optoelectronics devices for high speed communication systems and fiber optic networks. He has been in the field of fiber optic networks and telecommunications for over 15 years. His areas of specialization include integrated optic devices, optic networks and telecommunications, data communications, optical and electronic packaging, and micro-lithography. He is a lead engineer and project manager in photonics and microlithography systems programs, and has been directly involved in all phases of development and implementation of integrated fiber optic systems. In addition, he has lectured and written numerous technical papers on optical networks and telecommunications systems. Dr. Nguyen earned his Ph.D. in electrical engineering and applied physics from Case Western Reserve University. BACK

Who Should Attend

This course is suitable to anyone who is already engaged in or wishing to enter the area of optical communications.



  • Be able to read the technical literature and understanding manufacturer's data sheets.
  • Recognize conventional and new communications system techniques.
  • Understanding the important features and design parameters of some important systems.
  • Designing fundamental and advanced optical communication systems.


Course Outline

Overview of lightwave

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Ray theory transmission

Refraction and reflection

Critical angle, numerical aperature, refractive index difference

Acceptance angle

Snell's law

Fresnel reflection

Reflection coefficient effect of TE and TM polarization

Brewster angle

Types of polarization states

- Linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations

Jones matrix representations for

- Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization

Field representations of polarization

Which applications require polarization

Polarizing optical systems

- Linear and rotator polarizer

- Wave retarder : Quarter-wave and half-wave retarder.

Coherent state

- Perfect and partial-perfect coherence.

- Coherent time

- Coherent length

Interference states

What optical systems require coherent states

- Irradiance of coherent and incoherent waves


- Single and multiple slits


In class exercise


Semiconductor Laser Sources and Photodetector.

What are semiconductor sources and transmitter ?

Operating characteristics of light emitting diode (LED)

LED's structures

Types of LEDs

- Surface emitting

- Edge emitting

LED modulation and power output

Radiation pattern

Spectral width output

Tradeoff between surface-emitting and edge-emitting LED

Device performance

Device characteristics

- Modulation response, carrier lifetime, rise time

- Output power at DC and AC state

- Direct modulation of injection current.



Semiconductor laser

Operation of semiconductor laser

Types of semiconductor laser

Double Heterostructure

Buried Heterostructure

Radiation pattern of laser

Laser specification.

- Rise and fall time.

- Threshold current.

- Spectral width.

Tradeoff comparison between double heterostructure and buried lasers

Characteristics of double and buried lasers

Principle of optical cavity resonator

- Free spectral range

- Mode spacing

- Number of longitudal modes

- Finesse

LED and laser emissions

Trade-off comparison between laser and LED

Types of laser diode

- Fabry-perot

- Distributed feedback

Modulation of laser

Pulse, intensity, and external modulation.


What are detector and receiver ?

General concepts.

- Quantum efficiency

- Conversion gain

- Rise time

- Minimum detectable signal

- Noise equivalent power

Dynamic range, responsitivity, cutoff wavelength, current gain

Linear operation, dark current, signal current, bandwidth, gain factor

Types of noise

- Thermal noise

- Dark current noise

- Shot noise

- Signal to noise ratio with/without external gain

Types of photodiode

- PIN (Positive-intrinsic negative) photodiode

- APD(Avalanche photodiode)

Characteristics of photodiode

- PIN: Silicon, Germanium, InGaAs

- APD: Silicon, Germanium, InGaAs

Speed of response


Tradeoff between PIN and Avalanche detector

In class exercises


 Optical Fiber, Cables, and Connections.


Construction of fibers

Types of fibers

- Step-index fiber

- Graded index fiber

- Single-mode fiber

Fiber classifications

- Glass fiber

- Plastic-clad-silica fiber

- Plastic fiber

Fiber performances

Dimension of fibers

Advantages/benefits of fibers


- Intramodal dispersion: Material and waveguide.

- Intermodal dispersion: Modal effect

Limited data rate

Methods to reduce dispersions

Characteristics of step-index, graded-index, and single-mode fibers

- Delay difference, pulse broadening, bandwidth-length product

- Refractive index profile, normalized frequency

Types of attenuation

- Rayleigh scattering

- Absorption

- Bending

Multimode fibers

- Step-index type

- Graded-index type

- Structure and performance characteristics

- Refractive index profile

- Normalized frequency

- Number of guided modes.

Single-mode fibers

- Polarization-preserving fiber

- Structure and performance characteristics

- Cut-off wavelength.

- Beat length

Common fiber applications

In class exercise


Optical Cable, Connectors, and splices

Conditions of fiber cables

Maximum pulling and operating load

Maximum radius bending

Operating temperature

Mechanical resistances: Impact, crush, and flex

Main parts of cable

Core, cladding, silicone coating.

Buffer, tape, strength member, outer jacket.

Considerations of cable

Strength member

Tensile strength

Axial force

Crush resistance

Torsional/bending stress

Sharp bend

Moisture and chemical exposure

Two types of materials.

Dielectric and nondielectric cables

Cable type

Riser and plenum materials

Buffer coating

Three different buffering systems

Two types of buffer coating.

Loose buffer

Tight buffer

Simplex cable

Single optical fiber

One-way transmission

Direct connectorization

Duplex cable

Two-way transmission

Multifiber cable

Trunk transmission links

Ribbon cable

High density interconnection.

Indoor and outdoor cable

Interconnect cable

Distribution cable

Subgrouping cable

Routed to multiple locations

Arial cable

UV and weather resistance.

Armored cable

Loose tube type.

Military tactical cable

Communications and sensing cables

Aerospace cable

Cable installation

Underground installation

Aerial installation

Indoor installation

Conduit installation

Cables for different applications.

Submarine and undersea.



Metropolitan area networks

Connectors and Splices


Throughput loss

Return loss

Requirements of good connectors

Multifiber connectors

Mutimode and singlemode connectors

Types of connectors

Connector adapters

Types of splicing

Fusion splicing

Mechanical splicing

Tube splicing

V-groove splicing

Massive ribbon

Metal rod

Non-adhesive splice

Loss in fiber-to-fiber connection

Roughness surface

Lateral misalignment

Angular misalignment

Gap between ends

Types of loss

Insertion, excess, return, and coupling loss


Fiber Equipment Measurements.


Field measurements.

Optical source for loss measurements.

Attenuation measurement

-          Mode stripper.

-          Mode filter.

Fiber loss measurement.

-          Cut back method.

Localization of near-end faults.

Dispersion measurement.

-          Time domain method.

-          Frequency domain method

Optical analyzer.

Attenuation as a function of source wavelength.

Bandwidth and dispersion.

Numerical aperture

Optical component loss measurement.

Scattering loss measurement.

Free space power measurement.

Numerical aperture measurement.

Wavelength measurement.

Spectral measurement.

Laser line-width measurement

Return loss measurement.

Back reflection.

Laser chirp measurement.

Modulation bandwidth measurement.

Bit error rate.

Optical time-domain reflectometer. (OTDR)

Link loss measurements

Reflecance and return loss measurement

Length measurement

Breaks in cable

Splice evaluation

Fault location

Measurement of coherence time and length

Components required for optical sensor

Types of optical sensors

Amplitude sensor

Phase sensor

Amplitude sensor

Variable fiber coupling

Back reflected light

Shutter structure

Microbending effect

Phase modulation

Rotational effect

Mach-Zehnder interferometer

Multimode effect

Variations of detection

Advantages of optical sensors

Two classes of sensing devices

Extrinsic sensor

Intrinsic sensor

Intensity-Modulated sensor

Grating concept

Shutter concept

Microswitching concept

Displacement sensor

Longitude concept

Differential concept

Vertical, and angular effect

Attenuation sensor

Microbend concept

Chemical in water effect

Cross-talk concept

Level effect

Reflective sensor

Single fiber

Fiber bundle

Multimode optical fiber sensors

Types of measurements






Single mode fiber sensors

Types of interferometer.



Fabry perot


In class exercise


Optical Components and Sensors for Communication Applications.


Passive and active devices.

Basic operations of couplers.

Types of loss.

-          Throughput , tap, isolation , insertion, directionality, and excess loss.

Types of waveguide couplers.

-          Y-junction , splitter, merging couplers.

Types of fiber couplers.

-          T coupler: Grin rod and beamsplitter lenses.

-          Star coupler: Transmission and reflective star

-          Directional coupler.

-          Wavelength selectivity.

-          Wavelength division multiplexer.

-          Micro-optical coupler.

-          Fiber coupler.

Directional coupling waveguides.

Single mode optical 1 x N star coupler



Grin-rod lens and interference filter

Interference filter

Bragg gratings

Mode filter

Concave grating filter


Mach-Zehnder interferometer

Power splitter

Directional coupler

Optical path bending device


Refractive-effect grating

Reflective-effect grating


Interferometer wavelength filter.

Acoustic-optical tunable filter


Channel separation

Wavelength isolation

Electro-optic filter

Semiconductor distributed-feedback filter

Wavelength-division multiplexer.

Optical modulators

Modulation of light: Direct and external modulation

Wavelength chirping

Polarization modulator

Absorption modulator

Amplitude modulator

Traveling wave modulator

Phase modulator

Phase-matched polarization modulator

Optical switching devices.

Directional switching coupler

Internal reflection switch

Brag-diffraction switch

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch

Phase modulator integrated with polarizer

Polarization controller.

TE - TM mode converter.

TE/TM polarization splitter.

Photoelastic waveguide and polarizer


Optical isolator


Semiconductor and doped-fiber amplifier

Fabry-perot amplifier

Traveling wave amplifier


Displacement sensor using Michelson interferometer.

Evanescent field sensor.

Gyroscope on chip and substrate.

Electric field sensor.


System Design and Performance.


System design considerations

- Short distance- LAN system.

- Medium distance- Inter-central office system.

- Long distance- Toll-office trunk system.

Influence of system choice

Bandwidth, loss budget, size and weight consideration,

system cost, reliability, distance of operations.

Launched power, fiber choice, component loss, total channel loss

Signal-to-noise ratio, system rise time, maximum bit rate

Required safety margin, receiver sensitivity.

Fiber transmission systems.

Optical/digital transmission link.

Components of fiber link.

-          Transmitter

-          Channel.

-          Receiver.

Bandwidth limited by dispersion.

Maximum transmission distance limited by dispersion.

System power budget.

In-class exercise.


Direct Detection and Coherent Lightwave Systems.


Coherent light transmission

Components for coherent system.

Optical/Digital transmission link.

- Transmitter.

- Transmission medium.

- Receiver.


- Light-emitting diode.

- Surface-emitting LEDs.

- Edge-emiting LEDs

- Laser diode.

Tranmission medium.

- Fiber-loss calculation.

- Bandwidth limited by dispersion.

- Maximum transmission distance limited by dispersion.

Types of fiber optic link.

- Direct modulation link.

- Medium distance

- Chirping problem

- Limited bandwidth

- External modulation link.

- Long-haul distance capacity.

- Low chirping problem.

- Wide bandwidth

Market demands/Advantages of fiber optic link.

Receiver design.

Modulation formats.

- Analog modulation.

- Amplitude (AM)

- Phase (PM)

- Frequency (FM)

- Digital modulation.

- Amplitude shift keying format.

- Phase shift keying format.

- Frequency shift keying format

Direct detection

- Intensity-modulation scheme.

- Analog optical receiver.

- Digital optical receiver.

Coherent detection.

- Heterodyne detection.

- Homodyne detection.

Demodulation schemes.

- ASK synchronous heterodyne scheme.

- ASK asynchronous heterodyne scheme.

- DPSK asynchronous heterodyne scheme.

- FSK asynchronous heterodyne scheme.

Comparison between direct and coherent detections.

Bit error rate and receiver sensitivity with various modulation formats.

- ASK receiver

- PSK receiver.

- FSK receiver.

Repeater system.

-          Regenerator.

-          Optical amplifier.

In-class exercise.


Multichannel Optical Systems.


System integration process.

-          Point-to-point link.

-          Point-to-multipoint: Broadcast.

-          Multipoint-to-point: Network.

-          Half-duplex transmission

-          Full-duplex transmission.

Categories of transmission systems.

- Short, medium, and long distance.

Broadband network architecture.

- Master hub.

- Link hub

Bi-directional multiplexing transmission.

- Space division.

-          Wavelength division.

-          Wavelength splitter.

-          Polarization division.

-          Optical circulator.

Types of optical transmission.

-          Time division multiplexing system.

-          Wavelength division multiplexing system.

-          Frequency division multiplexing system.

Multi-channel transmission.

-          One direction.

-          Two direction.


- Electrical multiplexer.

- Optical multiplexer.

Photonic RF mixer /transmitter/receiver.

CATV system architecture

Central office systems.

-          Central office network topology.

Undersea lightwave system.



Vendor/Point of Contact:

Hung Nguyen, Ph.D.






TIME : 8:00 5:00

FEES : $1,200.

3-way of Payment:


1.Check payable to : Lightwave Technology Corp. (Mail to: Lightwave Technology Corp.,

1564 Belle Ave., Lakewood, Ohio 44107.

2. Purchase order attached : #

3. Invoice my company: Attention :

Seminar Location:

To be announced.




Date: 2 days

Time: 8:00 - 5:00

Maximum students per training section: 20

Fees: $ 7,800. ( Fee includes travel expense and class materials)



Registration by regular or electronic mail must be received at least 14 days before the first day of class (course date)


Full refund if class is cancelled. Otherwise, 20% refund less than 7 days before the first day of class. No refund is granted the first day of class.


Lightwave Technology Corp. reserves the right to cancel class if there is inadequate enrollment.